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'Général Jacqueminot' rose References
Book  (Feb 1993)  Page(s) 121.  Includes photo(s).
Général Jacqueminot
Hybrid Perpetual
Botanical grouping: Chinensis
'Gloire des Rosomanes' seedling (possibly x 'Géant de Batailles')
(synonym: 'General Jack', 'Jack Rose', 'La Brillante')
France 1853
... played a role in the breeding of many modern red roses. Long-stemmed blooms... deep crimson with scarlet touches... Recurrent... can suffer from rust later in the summer...
Book  (1993)  Page(s) 73.  
General Jacqueminot is a rose frequently found by those who search out historic roses in old homesteads and graveyards... 'General Jack' bears red, intensely fragrant blooms on a vigorous but not too tall bush (though it can reach six feet)... 'General Jack' is also famous for its role in hybridizing. A survey by the Iowa Experimental Station in Ames, Iowa, by Clark D. Paris and T.J. Maney in 1941 showed that there were 468 direct-line seedlings and 62 sports of this rose... [McCann recounts the legendary story behind the rose... one of Napoleon's favorite officers caught his own daughter in the arms of a young office and stabbed the boy to death... the daughter later died of a broken heart...] In the arbor where the lovers had been seated under a large pink rose bush, there appeared a short time afterward a stem, deep red and quite different from the original rose... [See source for more information]
Book  (1993)  Page(s) 52, 53.  Includes photo(s).
Page 52: Général Jacqueminot
Hybrid Perpetual
Named for a lesser general in French history... a cornerstone of rose breeding...
Page 53: [PHOTO]
Book  (Jun 1992)  Page(s) 131.  
Général Jacqueminot Hybrid Perpetual. Roussel/Rousselet, 1853. Seedling of 'Gloire des Rosomanes'. [Author cites information from different sources. The Rose Manual says this rose was "Named for a French general of the early Nineteenth Century and founder of a famous brewery of Paris still in existence today [1938]..."] Crimson... dark purple shaded bright crimson... dark red... its offspring are unnumerable... It was put into commerce by Mons Rousselet, gardener at Meudon, near Paris. The jury of the Versaille Exhibition gave it First Prize... An amateur, Mons Roussel, of Meudon, having gotten nothing from the various sowings he made, left their result at his death to his gardener Rousselet, who the following year discovered among them this rose of the first order...
Book  (1988)  Page(s) 63.  
....Général Jacqueminot, was introduced in 1853 and described ten year later by David Hay of Auckland as 'most brilliant, crimson, scarlet, even surpassing 'Géant des Batailles', the best in this class'. Eighteen year later, Henderson of New York, emphasized, 'This is now the most fashionable of all roses, or winter flowers' and thought that probably 200,000 sq. ft (18,580 sq. m) of greenhouses were devoted exclusively to its growth in the vicinity of New York for the purpose of forcing it. Still the praise continued: B. A. Elliott & Co., Plantsmen of Pittsburgh had 'never had better success with Hybrid Perpetuals than in last summer and autumn; one bed of Jacqueminots containing a hundred plants gave us quantities of bloom daily from June to September' (A Few Flowers Worthy of General Culture, Pittsburgh, 1899).

Finally, forty years after introduction, T. B. Jenkins added his applause:
In 1853 France gave us Général Jacqueminot, leader of the Hybrid Perpetuals, the grand, dark crimson rose, so sturdy in growth, rich in bloom and powerful in colour. The great half grown crimson buds have slept on the bosom of every belle since that day and they have been sold by the hundred for as many dollars to New York dealers and were retailed, no doubt, for twice that sum. A few days before one Christmas the only Jacqueminot buds to be found in the city were sold for $15 each or eight times their weight in gold. Roses and Rose Culture, Rochester, N.Y. (1892)
Book  (1988)  Page(s) 16.  
1853... a longer petalled red rose, and a substantial bloom.
Article (magazine)  (1988)  Page(s) 29.  
[Colour description according to the CIELAB colour space (petal inside): L* = Lightness, a* = red-green axis, b* = yellow-blue axis]
'Général Jacqueminot' (Roussel, 1853; clear red), L* 32-34, a* 58-59, b* -1 to +12
Book  (1988)  Page(s) 73.  Includes photo(s).
Book  (1988)  Page(s) 168.  Includes photo(s).
“Roses at the Cape of Good Hope” 1988. 3rd edition 1995
In 1858 only five years after Roussel had introduced ‘Général Jacqueminot’ to Europe, this brilliant scarlet rose was listed amongst the roses growing in the Botanic Garden in Cape Town. There seems to be some uncertainty as to its parentage. Some say that it was a seedling of ‘Gloire des Rosomanes’, others that it was a hybrid between that and ‘Geant des Batailles’. It certainly has the same scarlet colouring, occasional white streaking and delicious fragrance of ‘Gloire des Rosomanes’, and as the flowers age they display the darker purple hues of the Giant. After one and a quarter centuries all three of these scarlet roses are still to be found in old gardens at the Cape, though ‘Général Jacqueminot’ is the least common. According to Roy Shepherd its bright red colour and intense fragrance were used as a basis by which other roses were judged’ for more than fifty years. He regards it as one of the greatest rose parents of all time – it gave rise to more than five hundred seedlings and sixty sports. Two of its best-known descendants, ‘Crimson Glory’ and ‘Etoile de Hollande’, were to be found in almost every Cape rose garden when I was a schoolgirl, and they still occur frequently in older gardens. ‘General Jack’ itself, however, is a scarce rose and I had searched far and wide without tracing a single plant, when I was told of a very old red rose growing in Grace Taute’s garden in the Langkloof. This turned out indeed to be ‘Général Jacqueminot’ . No one knew which of the Taute ancestors had planted the rose nor what it was called. Grace was pleased that I took cuttings…..
Plant: Strong growing shrub with many stout stems having slightly hooked thorns of different sizes.
Foliage: Five oval-round pointed leaflets with marked serrations and dark-green matt surfaces. Stalks are sturdy and have prickles; stipules are adnate, narrow and light green.
Flowers: Round red buds open to half-full flowers about 8cm in diameter. Petals are broad with wavy edges, crimson turning purple-maroon as they age. There are numerous short stamens around a bunch of hairy pistils. The calyx is cup-shaped and smooth. The sepals are long, pointed and unfoliated; they are slightly glandular on top and velvety on the underside. The very fragrant flowers appear in a flush in spring and autumn with fewer blooms in between.
Inflorescence: two or three flowers at the end of short side shoots at the top of the stems. Flower stalks-are glandular and the leaf-like bracts light green.
Article (website)  (1982)  Page(s) 18.  
Général Jacqueminot (Hybrid Perpetual) Clear red H.T. type flowers on long stems. Fragrant and very vigorous with rich green foliage.  1853. (C) 4 x 3’. 
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