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Schwarzkopf, Daniel August

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  Listing last updated on 16 Sep 2023.
Kassel, Hesse
Daniel August Schwarzkopf (January 26, 1737 Ostrau - April 1817 Kassel), German rose breeder, who bred many early so-called "Dutch" Gallicas and other OGRs.

[From Gartenkalender auf das Jahr 1783 by Conrad C. L. Hirschfeld, 1783, p. 255:] "Weissenstein, near Cassel. Index of North American and other foreign and also domestic Trees, Shrubs and Plants, which can be had here from the Princely Court Gardener Mr. Schwarzkopf....Besides These trees and shrubs, Mr. Schwarzkopf owns of the richest and most distinguished collections of roses."

[From Verzeichnis ausländischer Bäume und Stauden des Lustschlosses Weissenstein bey Cassel, by Conrad Mönch, 1785, p. 111:] "The Rose. A very variable plant genus, where a lot is still missing for correction, in order to differentiate specific characteristics from the true species and varieties, and to which species these varieties belong. Mr Schwarzkopf has since 12 years sowed annually from all species which are found here [in Weissenstein], and has obtained many perceptibly new varieties. Some of this genus remains always the same, the bloom is single, and the form and habit does not change; such as the pimpinellifolia, the yellow [Rosa foetida], the drooping [Rosa pendulina], the Turkish [Rosa foetida bicolor] and the Prickly Rose. Others however, such as the Centifolia, the Damask and the French Rose provide every year new varieties."

[From Unter den Rosen, 2015, p. 108:] Daniel August Schwarzkopf (1737-1817)...died in April 1817. His son Carl Friedrich now officially took over the Position of his father as Court Gardener in Auegarten.

[From Rose Letter, May 2015, p. 11:] Earlier, in 1766, he [Landgrave Friedrich II] had hired the gardener Daniel August Schwarzkopf, a former apprentice of Philippe Miller in London, to take charge of the Weissenstein grounds. A year later, Schwarzkopf set up a nursery, which grew some 52,000 shrubs, including roses. It became the largest nursery in Germany, closing its doors nearly a hundred years later. In the rosarium’s early years, the Schwarzkopf had acquired some of the roses from a landscape garden owned by Baron von Munchhausen. In the meantime, Schwarzkopf began to create his own roses

[From Gartenrosen, Kataloge und Rosengärtner zwischen 1770 und 1795 in Deutschland und den Niederlanden, by Anita Böhm-Krutzinna, 2018, p. 114:] The first "true" rose breeder of Europe with many novelties before 1777 was court gardener Daniel August Schwarzkopf (1737-1817). He was educated, spoke several languages and was known for his innovative working methods. During his wanderings as a gardeners' apprentice he worked for half a year near Haarlem in the Netherlands, later in London. From 1773 onwards he bred roses in Kassel - possibly even via artificial pollination. The knowledge of this type of breeding was at the time widespread in Germany and was used in carnations, auricula, wallflowers and ranunculus. ...Schwarzkoph did not specialize on a certain rose class, but sowed from many rose sorts and species of the Park [Wilhelmshöhe]. From the seedlings of species especially his hybrid rubiginosas became known. However also many Gallica, Alba and Damascena varieties and even Centifolias were originated.... The botanist Dr. Böttger mentioned already in 1777 in a plant listing that there were around 100 rose varieties and species in the pleasance.

[From Daniel August Schwarzkopf - Hofgärtner, Garteninspektor und Rosenzüchter am landgräflich-kurfürstlichen Hof zu Kassel by Ruth Weiss, pp. 138-152:] ...Daniel August Schwarzkopf was Born January 26, 1737 in Ostrau near Halle an der Saale. His father, Rudolf Benjamin Schwarzkopf, was court gardener at the Court Judge of Braunschweig, Baron Friedrich August von Veltheim...In the year 1757 the master of the Teutonic Order Daniel Christoph Georg Count of Schulenburg took the 20-year old gardener to his court estate Lucklum near Braunschweig...He sent Daniel August first to an educational trip to "Cassel, Mainz, to Bonn and Holland"; in 1758 further to England....where Schwarzkopf received very good plant expertise at Philipp Miller...At the end of October 1766 Schwarzkopf...started his new Position at the court of the Landgrave [Friedrich II. of Hesse]...Schwarzkopf was one of the first gardeners in Germany, who deliberately selected roses and was not satisfied with chance seedlings. So many new rose varieties were originated during his stay at the Court of Kassel... In the Casselschen Polizei- und Commerzienzeitung of April 14, 1817, is the obituary - plain and simple: Daniel August Schwarzkopf - Inspector and Court Gardener at the Electoral-Princely Auegarten has died at the age of 80 years and 3 months....
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