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[From Modern Garden Roses>, by Peter Harkness, p. 19:] The chemical that gives geraniums their scarlet colouring ... the first recorded appearance of it in a large-flowered rose is 'Independence'.
[From A Family of Roses, by Sam McGredy and Sean Jennett, p. 45:] The gene for true orange was not in any rose... and now there are several oranges and orange scarlets because of the mutation that gave Kordes' 'Independence'...
[From Botanica's Roses, p. 109:] The advent of 'Independence' in 1951 brought pelargonidin, the chemical that gives geraniums their scarlet coloring, into the service of rose breeders.
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