'Rosa indica L.' rose References
Magazine (2020) Page(s) 29. Vol 42, No. 4.
Billy West. Some Favourite Fragrant Roses.
China roses are not renowned for their fragrance, but I find the scent of the red Chinas delightful. Those who are familiar with the scent and taste of Ripe Raspberries - one of the usual suspects in a bag of mixed lollies in days gone by - will recognise this in red China roses like Slater’s Crimson and in some of the red-coloured Tea roses.
Article (magazine) (2019) Page(s) 2984-5.
In this study, the complete chloroplast genome of R. chinensis was sequenced and analyzed.....The samples of R. chinensis were collected from flowers plantation in Putian district of Fujian province (Fujian, China, 119.07E; 25.49 N)..... The results indicated that R. chinensis is located in the genus Rose and is closest related to R. odorata
Article (magazine) (2017)
Recurrent-flowering sports of Rosa chinensis were found, cultivated and bred in China about 1000 years ago (Guoliang, 2003). Modern-day recurrent-flowering cultivars were bred from these sports. The gene responsible for this characteristic is a mutant gene that is recessive to its wild-type allele and F1 hybrids between recurrent-flowering cultivars and wild roses are seasonal-flowering. It is generally the case that a recessive mutant gene is a damaged gene that is unable to function normally. In the case of the recurrent-flowering gene the ability that has been lost is the restraint of flowering. Recently information has emerged at the molecular level, on how this happens.
The wild-type homologue of the recessive gene for seasonal flowering in roses has been named RoKSN, where Ro stands for rose and KSN for “Koushin”, the ancient Japanese name for recurrent-flowering Rosa chinensis (Iwata et al., 2012). RoKSN encodes a protein called RoKSN (written without italics). RoKSN is activated (transcribed into mRNA) when gibberellins are present in shoot apices in a sufficiently high concentration. RoKSN is then produced which prevents the initiation of flowers (Randoux et al., 2012; Remay et al., 2009).
Newsletter (May 2015) Page(s) 9. Vol 36, No. 3.
Peter Holmes, President Bermuda Rose Society.
....The Bermuda Rose Society logo features the rose 'Slater's Crimson China' as it is now known, previously called by its mystery name "Belfield"..... the Society has propagated it intensively and all new members receive a bush to care for.
Newsletter (Aug 2012) Page(s) 17-18.
[From "The History and Legacy of the China Rose", by Howard Higson, pp. 16-19]
The British Museum possesses a remnant of a crimson China rose from the Herbarium of Gronovius, labeled “Chineesche Eglantier Roosen” (1733). It has been confirmed as the type specimen of R. chinensis Jacquin, named in 1768. This taxon has persisted to this day yet is now known to represent a diverse group that has been evolving in cultivation for many centuries....
Peter Osbeck, a pupil of Linnaeus, identified a similar specimen in the gardens of the Custom House at Canton, China in 1751. It became his type specimen for R. indica and yet is certainly R. chinensis, probably identical to the “Blush Tea China ” in Linnaeus’ herbarium. Other China rose specimens in this herbarium include three crimsons, one pink, and one recognized hybrid.
Article (magazine) (2012) Page(s) 17-18.
The British Museum possesses a remnant of a crimson China rose from the Herbarium of Gronovius, labeled “Chineesche Eglantier Roosen” (1733). It has been confirmed as the type specimen of R. chinensis Jacquin, named in 1768. This taxon has persisted to this day, yet is now known to represent a diverse group that has been evolving in cultivation for many centuries. Its wild ancestor was discovered nearly one hundred and fifty years after the naming of R. chinensis and was named R. chinensis var. spontanea.
p68 Photo "Belfield" by Stephen Scanniello.
p69. Gregg Lowery. "Belfield". when the American rosarian Richard Thomson encountered this rose at Belfield, he believed he had discovered the long-lost 'Slater's Crimson China'. Long familiar to Bermudians as the "Belfield" or "the Belfield rose", the rose has small deep red flowers with yellow stamens and only the occasional fleck of white. Compact and ever-blooming, it has a very ancient appearance.
p76. Liesbeth Cooper. DNA Results on Bermuda Mystery Roses.
'Slater's China' (R. chinensis var. semperflorens). The Bermuda samples were different from the other six samples tested, five of which were identical: four from San Jose, California, and one from the Botanical Garden of Lyon. Differing from all these was a sample from l'Hay-les-Roses, France.
Article (magazine) (2011) Page(s) 158.
Table 1 The main morphological characters, distribution information, and chromosome number of varieties of R. odorata and R. chinensis, with respective names taken from Hurst's (1941) descriptions
R. chinensis 'Yue yuehong'; 2n = 2x, 3x, 4x = 14, 21, 28; Double or semi-double; Variable [colour]; Widely cultivated elsewhere; Slater's Crimson China = R. chinensis var. semperflorens
Newsletter (Oct 2009) Page(s) 10.
Plants of Slater’s Crimson China can still be seen growing today at the historic Kemp homestead built in Kerikeri in 1822, where a border of this small rose was planted along the front of the house.
Booklet (2009) Page(s) 28-29, 36-37.
p. 28: Diploid....R. chinensis var. semperflorens, heterozygous loci 74% [Provenance: China]
p. 29: Triploid...Slater's Crimson China [Provenance: Texas A&M University material from Ralph Moore]
p. 36-27: The accession of R. chinensis var. semperflorens [ex Flower Research Inst., Yunnan] in this study was in the 'Old Blush' group based on the SSR data as well, so assuming correct collection and labeling, this example of the red variety of R. chinensis appears to be a flower color sport of 'Old Blush' or vice versa. It is also notable that this particular specimen is not identical to the specimen of 'Slater's Crimson China' (C29) [ex Ralph Moore] used in this study, though they are sometimes cross-referenced because these names have been used interchangeably at times in history (Dickerson, 1992).. In addition, these samples of R. chinensis var. semperflorens and 'Slater's Crimson China' were different ploidy levels: diploid and triploid, respectively. A rose that did prove to have the same profile as 'Slater's Crimson China' was the found rose 'Ferndale Red China' (C38) [ex Vintage Gardens], so it seems that rose has found its identity. However, there is more than one plant identified in the trade as 'Slater's Crimson China' (Piola, et al., 2002), so testing multiple sources could investigate the different clones in the trade, but would still not be able to say with certainty which were the original cultivar.