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'La France' rose References
Magazine  (Sep 2020)  Page(s) 34. Vol 42, No. 3.  Includes photo(s).
Ed.  ...Old illustrations (and modern photos) can vary widely in their accuracy (see below right and opposite, illustrations of La France, reprinted from the HRIA Journal of summer 2011, 33.4, pp. 5, 12)     
Article (magazine)  (2009)  Page(s) 30.  
La France  Source RJBM [Réal Jardin Botanico Madrid] Chromosome Number 21
Book  (2003)  Page(s) 152.  
Obtentions de J-B. Guillot fils
1867. La France (HT), Catalogue
Book  (Aug 2002)  Page(s) 53.  
La France
Rated 6.8
Article (magazine)  (2002)  Page(s) 409, 412.  
p. 409: La France  Chromosome number 21  [Provenance: Guillot] 

p. 412: The triploid level is generally considered to generate seed sterility; however for the roses systems, that is falsed since the first known triploid cv. 'La France' is quite fertile.... our hybridization programme demonstrated the successful behaviours of those triploid genotypes; when they are used in the female way, they led to a fructification and germination percentage around 20%. This fertility is probably the results of a high performing regulation process working during the chromosome migration in the meiosis. 
Book  (2000)  Page(s) 9.  
The rose 'La France,' hybridized by Guillot, has been retrospectively (and somewhat arbitrarily) declared the first hybrid tea, and its 1867 date of introduction represents the line of demarcation between the old roses and modern roses.
Book  (Nov 1999)  Page(s) 12.  
La France This spectacular rose took the horticultural world by storm, and features prominently in a painting by Gustave Caillebotte of his own rose garden.
Magazine  (1998)  Page(s) 31. No. 16.  
Michael Gibson, “Old roses for beginners”.   
.....Nevertheless, at quite an early date, it did prove possible to divide roses into some sort of order by picking those with many characteristics in common to form a group, though there were many roses that came half-way between one group and another.   A new category of rose does not arrive overnight and can be brought about by many factors such as a gradual change of climate.   It does not have a clearly defined beginning or end,  and a decision as to which is the first rose in a new group is likely to be rather arbitrary.    For instance, 1867 was the year when hybrid teas were officially recognised as a distinctive family,  and though originally sold as a hybrid perpetual, the variety ‘La France’  was chosen to start them off.  It was one of several with an equally valid claim, at least two of them coming from England, but the all-pervading strength of the French nursery trade in those days swayed the vote in favour of their candidate.
Book  (1997)  Page(s) 33.  Includes photo(s).
Found by Jean-Baptiste Guillot among a patch of seedlings in his nursery at Lyons, France. (Description) Immediately he recognized it as 'something different' ... Guillot had no idea of its true parentage ... it took several years to convince the Rose Society [in France] that M. Guillot had stumbled upon a rose worthy of distinction as being the first Hybrid Tea ... It took even longer to convince the British National Rose Society.
Magazine  (1997)  
1997  Heritage Roses in Australia 3rd National Conf proceedings, Fremantle 
p46.  Bill Grant:   For what it’s worth - Steven Scanniello sent to six nurseries in the US (He’s at Brooklyn Botanic Garden) for their La France and he got six different roses.   

p87.  Margaret Moir’s workshop.      Eventually a tea was crossed with a Hybrid Perpetual to give the first HT ‘La France’ (1867)  which had more European rose blood and therefore more cold tolerance.  
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