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'Independence' rose References
Book  (Aug 2002)  Page(s) 48.  
Rated 6.6
Book  (2001)  Page(s) 52.  
Independence Floribunda, orange red, 1951. Rating: 6.6
Book  (Dec 1998)  Page(s) 312.  
Independence ('Geranium', 'Kordes' Sondermeldung', 'Reina Elisenda', 'Sondermeldung') Kordes (Germany) 1951. Description... the neatly formed, full-petaled, medium-sized blooms turn a hideous clashing purple as they age... the stems were not able to support the wide, heavy flower clusters...
Book  (Dec 1998)  Page(s) 109.  
The advent of 'Independence' in 1951 brought pelargonidin, the chemical that gives geraniums their scarlet coloring, into the service of rose breeders.
Book  (Dec 1998)  Page(s) 550.  
Nowadays, 'Independence' is in the pedigree of almost all red Cluster-flowered Roses.
Book  (Mar 1995)  Page(s) 165.  
the rose that ushered pelargonidum, the pigment responsible for geranium orange-red coloration, into the large-flowered roses...
Book  (Sep 1993)  Page(s) 221.  Includes photo(s).
Independence ('Kordes Sondermeldung', 'Geranium', 'Reina Elisenda') Cluster-flowered. Parentage: 'Baby Chateau' x 'Crimson Glory'. Wilhelm Kordes 1950. Description... 'Sondermeldung; mean 'Special Announcement'... scarlet-to-orange...
Book  (Apr 1993)  Page(s) 257.  
Floribunda, pure scarlet, 1951, ('Geranium'; 'Kordes' Sondermeldung'; 'Reina Elisenda'; 'Sondermeldung'); F2 seedling ('Baby Château' x 'Crimson Glory'); Kordes; J&P.
Book  (1988)  Page(s) 19.  
(1950) The result of the first recorded appearance of pelargonidin, the chemical that gives geraniums their scarlet colouring, in a large-flowered rose … unfortunately, it forms awkward sprays on stems too feeble to support them, and the geranium tones went purple.
Book  (1985)  Page(s) 104.  
Independence was the first rose of Floribunda or Hybrid Tea type in those flaming orange scarlet colours which set rose gardens ablaze in the 1950s and 1960s, much to the regret of the fastidious... it was so different from any predecessor that the German name was 'Kordes' Sondermeldung', or 'Special Announcement'.
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